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Laurel Zuev
Laurel Zuev

Ak Dutta Anatomy Pdf Free REPACK 14


A thorough understanding and evaluation of the relevant anatomy and physiology of the muscles and possible alterations in the area to be injected is essential. Dosage for the patients depends on the area, muscle mass, gender and other factors individually. Contraindications include conditions of peripheral motor neuropathic diseases or neuromuscular functional disorders, coadministration with aminoglycoside antibiotics or other agents that interfere with neuromuscular transmission and may potentiate general weakness, treatment of patients with inflammatory skin disorders at the injection site, history of reaction to toxin, pregnancy and lactation, age younger than 12 y, participation in occupations that necessitate a wide range of facial expressions.171,186-188




Ak Dutta Anatomy Pdf Free 14


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The e-liquid typically contains humectants and flavourings, with or without nicotine; once vapourised by the atomiser, the aerosol (vapour) provides a sensation similar to tobacco smoking, but purportedly without harmful effects [3]. However, it has been reported that the heating process can lead to the generation of new decomposition compounds that may be hazardous [4, 5]. The levels of nicotine, which is the key addictive component of tobacco, can also vary between the commercially available e-liquids, and even nicotine-free options are available. For this particular reason, e-cigarettes are often viewed as a smoking cessation tool, given that those with nicotine can prevent smoking craving, yet this idea has not been fully demonstrated [2, 6, 7].


One of the first studies in humans involved the analysis of 9 volunteers that consumed e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, in a ventilated room for 2 h [8]. Pollutants in indoor air, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and urinary metabolite profiles were analysed. The results of this acute experiment revealed that e-cigarettes are not emission-free, and ultrafine particles formed from propylene glycol (PG) could be detected in the lungs. The study also suggested that the presence of nicotine in e-cigarettes increased the levels of NO exhaled from consumers and provoked marked airway inflammation; however, no differences were found in the levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), an oxidative stress marker, before and after e-cigarette consumption [8]. A more recent human study detected significantly higher levels of metabolites of hazardous compounds including benzene, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, acrolein and acrylamide in the urine of adolescent dual users (e-cigarettes and conventional tobacco consumers) than in adolescent e-cigarette-only users (Table 1) [9]. Moreover, the urine levels of metabolites of acrylonitrile, acrolein, propylene oxide, acrylamide and crotonaldehyde, all of which are detrimental for human health, were significantly higher in e-cigarette-only users than in non-smoker controls, reaching up to twice the registered values of those from non-smoker subjects (Table 1) [9]. In line with these observations, dysregulation of lung homeostasis has been documented in non-smokers subjected to acute inhalation of e-cigarette aerosols [10].


In a comparative study, repeated exposure of human gingival fibroblasts to CS condensate or to nicotine-rich or nicotine-free e-vapour condensates led to alterations in morphology, suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis, with changes in all three parameters greater in cells exposed to CS condensate [29]. Likewise, both e-cigarette aerosol and CS extract increased cell death in adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 cells), and again the effect was more damaging with CS extract than with e-cigarette aerosol (detrimental effects found at 2 mg/mL of CS extract vs. 64 mg/mL of e-cigarette extract) [22], which is in agreement with another study examining battery output voltage and cytotoxicity [30].


In the aforementioned study exposing human gingival fibroblasts to CS condensate or to nicotine-rich or nicotine-free e-vapour condensates [29], the detrimental effects were greater in cells exposed to nicotine-rich condensate than to nicotine-free condensate, suggesting that the possible injurious effects of nicotine should be considered when purchasing e-refills. It is also noteworthy that among the 3 most cytotoxic vapours for HUVEC evaluated in the Putzhammer et al. study, 2 were nicotine-free, which suggests that nicotine is not the only hazardous component in e-cigarettes [24].


The harmful effects of CS and their deleterious consequences are both well recognised and widely investigated. However, and based on the studies carried out so far, it seems that e-cigarette consumption is less toxic than tobacco smoking. This does not necessarily mean, however, that e-cigarettes are free from hazardous effects. Indeed, studies investigating their long-term effects on human health are urgently required. In this regard, the main additional studies needed in this field are summarized in Table 3.


Knowledge of bronchovascular anatomy (seen in the image below) is the key to the accurate interpretation of CT scans obtained for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism. A systematic approach in identifying all vessels is important. The bronchovascular anatomy has been described on the basis of the segmental anatomy of lungs. The segmental arteries are seen near the accompanying branches of the bronchial tree and are situated either medially (in the upper lobes) or laterally (in the lower lobes, lingula, and right middle lobe).


A "thick stem" mutant of Corchorus olitorius L. was induced at M2 (0.50%, 4h, EMS) and the true breeding mutant is assessed across generations (M5 to M7) considering morphometric traits as well as SEM analysis of pollen grains and raw jute fibres, stem anatomy, cytogenetical attributes, and lignin content in relation to control. Furthermore, single fibre diameter and tensile strength are also analysed. The objective is to assess the stability of mutant for its effective exploration for raising a new plant type in tossa jute for commercial exploitation and efficient breeding. The mutant trait is monogenic recessive to normal. Results indicate that "thick stem" mutant is stable across generations (2n = 14) with distinctive high seed and fibre yield and significantly low lignin content. Stem anatomy of the mutant shows significant enhancement in fibre zone, number of fibre pyramids and fibre bundles per pyramid, and diameter of fibre cell in relation to control. Moreover, tensile strength of mutant fibre is significantly higher than control fibre and the trait is inversely related to fibre diameter. However the mutant is associated with low germination frequency, poor seed viability, and high pollen sterility, which may be eliminated through mutational approach followed by rigorous selection and efficient breeding.


Induction of mutation forms an integral part of breeding program as it widens the gene pool through creation of genetic variability. The methodology has been successfully adapted for crop improvement and release of elite "plant type" mutants [1] including Corchorus olitorius (tossa jute; family: Tiliaceae), an important fibre yielding crop of commerce [2-5]. A "thick stem" (designated as "thick stem I") mutant was isolated from M2 mutagenised population of C. olitorius var. JRO 524 following seed treatment with ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and the mutant bred true at M4 generation [6]. Present investigation describes the "thick stem" mutant in relation to control considering morphometric traits as well as scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of pollen grains and raw jute fibres, anatomical (stem anatomy) attributes, cytogenetical (meiosis and inheritance of the mutant trait) parameters, and biochemical (lignin and holo-cellulose contents) aspects in advanced generations (M5 to M7) under uniform environmental conditions. Furthermore,


Figure 1: Tossa jute plant types ((a), (b)), sticks (c), and stem anatomy of middle zone ((d), (e)). ((a), (d)) Corchorus olitorius. ((b), (e)) "thick stem" mutant. (c) Jute sticks after retting (control: c1, mutant: c2).


Aquatic macrophytes are important components that contribute to the primary productivity, stabilization, storage and cycling of nutrients within the lakes. Decline in submerged vegetation and increase in abundance of free-floating macrophytes are the most significant changes along the ecological gradient of the lakes (Jeppesen et al. 2012; Poikane et al. 2018; Dos Santos et al. 2020). Macrophytes are sensitive to eutrophication, water level fluctuations, acidification, shoreline modifications, recreation activities, navigation and biological invasion (Poikane et al. 2018). The growth and life cycle of free-floating macrophytes are mainly affected by the lake water chemistry, as they are in direct contact with lake water. Rooted submerged macrophytes are affected by both water and sediment chemistry as their bodies are inside the lake water and their roots derive nutrients from the benthic region sediments (Krems et al. 2013; Reitsema et al. 2018). Submerged macrophytes show better dermal absorption characteristics because of the structure of their leaves having underdeveloped lamina and skin, supporting the fast exchange of matter with the environment (Maleva and Nekrasova 2004). The emergent macrophytes are least affected in comparison to free-floating and submerged macrophytes by the water chemistry of lakes as they derive their major nutrients from the benthic sediments (Short et al. 2016).


Studies of macrophytic responses to eutrophication exposure on anatomical and elemental changes have been done mostly (Zhu et al. 2018) in the laboratory or controlled experimental conditions with fewer field investigations (Zhu 2012). Changes in anatomical structure along with elemental variations are key strategies against the stressed aquatic environment (Zhu et al. 2018). Consequently, the objective of this study was to investigate the change in anatomy as well as elemental constituents in common aquatic macrophytes from three different freshwater lakes having different trophic states. Anatomical and elemental traits were monitored using SEM and EDS. The changes on adaxial surface of leaves of Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata were examined using SEM, including stomata structure, number and surface morphology. Further, elemental changes in Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata and Typha latifolia were evaluated for three different lakes with different water quality, trophic state and catchment characteristics using EDS. This allowed to study how elemental constituents in the macrophytes increased with increase in trophic state. This is the first in-situ study reporting the anatomical and elemental responses of aquatic macrophytes against wastewater-induced nutrient enrichment in the freshwater tropical lakes of the Central Gangetic Plains. This study will be helpful in understanding the macrophytic response which shall be helpful in proper management of freshwater ecosystem.


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