Matures Hard ^NEW^
Dental pulp is a type of connective tissue found within the hard tissues (dentine and enamel) of the teeth. When exposed to damage such as caries or tooth fracture, dental pulp is at risk of infection, which can lead to pain, necrosis, and infection of the jaw bone and surrounding tissues. Currently in permanent teeth (secondary dentition), root canal (usually compromised of a pulpectomy [removal of the vital pulp in the tooth], refilling with synthetic material, and sealing), is the most common treatment for infected pulp.
Apple harvest began last week in northwest Michigan and overall quality is variable in orchards across the region following severe storms that brought high winds and hail to the area. In orchards that were unfortunately in the swath of storms that passed through this summer, fruit with punctured skin and bruises are abundant, especially on the west side of rows or the western facing surface of the fruit. Orchards that were outside of the swath have less fruit injury, but some were still impacted by high winds. Fruit are sizing and coloring well where trees were adequately thinned and some blocks with heavier loads have smaller fruit.
Pest pressure has been generally low this season with the exception of some hot spot blocks that had high numbers of codling moth and a few orchards with high levels of scab infection during the primary scab season this spring. We received a minimal amount of rainfall over the weekend 0.15 inch, and predicted temperatures for the coming week are hot in the 80s with warm nights in the 60s. There are a few chances for rain on Thursday and possibly over the weekend or early next week, and some rain will help fruit size.
Gingergold harvest began late last week and growers are thinking about starting to pick SweeTango next week. We have started maturity testing on Galas, McIntosh and Honeycrisp. However, these varieties are hard as a rock, still too starchy when eaten straight from the tree and not ready for fresh market. Growers are anticipating good prices for fresh market apples this year due to challenging apple producing conditions across the country.
And that brings us back to the insurance industry poll. Some 73 percent of respondents disagreed with the idea that hard work be deemphasized in American life. And 2 out of 3 said they would favor less emphasis on money in our society.
These attitudes - along with those cited earlier - may provide just the kind of populace to make the OMB forecast for the 1980s come about. Nearly 1 in 3 Americans is a member of the boom generation. So attitudes that emphasize hard work, equality in marriage and work, a religious inner gyroscope, and careful child-rearing are likely to pervade society if the boom generation matches actions to its words.
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At 20 I graduated with a 2:1 BSc in Human Biology from a top 50 Uni, then achieved a Merit MRes in Functional Genomics from a top 10 Uni. I pretty much went straight into industry working on lentiviral vectors for gene therapy treatments; however, after three months I was running low on money, having a pretty hard time at home and this all affected my work so left the company after 3 months.
I can't speak for any PhD program other than my own, but can I just say that I have a really hard time thinking of 27 as 'mature'? FWIW, I didn't even get a BS until my mid-30s, and spent enough years in industry to become financially independent before pursuing a PhD. Had no problems whatsoever* getting into the program.
A: Well, you start by becoming a teacher, by having an interest in children. Then the natural ambition of most of us in the field is to progress to a higher level of responsibility. Part of it is a matter of ambition and part of it is a matter of pride, to have larger areas of authority, to develop your ideas of how children should be taught and to create an environment in which many teachers work together for the benefit of the child. Which means that you have a cooperative effort in various phases of the child's development. By being a principal you can set policies, you can formulate and work on new ideas. You can experiment with children and you can enjoy observing whether or not your ideas are workable and valuable or not either and, therefore, it might be better to pursue some other course of events. Q: What was the school like where you first started teaching? Was that the same school of which you eventually became principal? A: I was in a small high school area to begin with. I took extra work to become a credited in the state of Oregon. Then I took an opening job and from there moved to a larger school after two years. After three and a half years, I moved to a much larger school where I stayed the rest of my life. Again the matter of enjoying more responsibility, increased pay and better working conditions are all factors that everyone more or less recognizes in their own life. By this time, I had a firm feeling that education should be adapted to the needs of the children rather than just a continuation of what has always has been a schedule of learning or grade development. And I might illustrate the fact that in the elementary program, the incoming group of youngsters may vary greatly in their ability to learn and in their maturity; it is important, if possible, to devise systems or methods where by the youngster who comes in as a six year old has a chance to be successful. To meet material and teachers who recognize that he may be either slower or faster than the average child. Teachers who will adopt a program that will facilitate or encourage the fast or the slow youngster. I think that says why I became interested in elementary education at that time. Becoming a principal was an attempt to try out some ideas that I had, such as the preliminary processes of a democratic school system in which children can be a part of their own discipline, and a part of their own rule making and a part of their own primitive interest in the exploration in many subjects. It's on their level, of course, but I can stimulate their desire to learn and create situations in which it's fun to learn. That facilitates learning. Q: What was the building like? A: Most of the buildings in which I worked were very stereotyped. That is, there was so much square footage, I don't recall what it was, that was necessary for each child to have. The buildings were very traditional. They had lots of lighting and the use of lots of different uses of building materials, which were not always adequate but through the process of time and being used by children determined whether they were good or bad. For instance, for a while glass bricks were in vogue, but this created a very difficult situation in bright sunlight because warmth was drawn into the room. Later, different types of glass material and glass structure was used in building school buildings. My particular time was the 1950's. At that time there was beginning to be a rapid increase in the numbers of children coming into the area in which I lived; also, many of the buildings that had previously been used were now pretty well obsolete. They were not large enough nor well equipped enough for modern teaching methods. During that time, different types of desks were manufactured and sold and different types of school supplies. People experimented. SO we, too, bought individual type desks or tandem desks to see whether or not they were more advantageous than straight-backed desks. It's interesting because, it was a time when you felt there had to be sufficient separation between seats so the children did not copy one from the other. With the flexible room, you could move the seats about. If you wanted to move some children in a kind of a grouping, which caused no embarrassment to any of the children, you could do that, or you could group them according to their interest level or their subject matter. Educational processes were in a period of experimentation and there was lots of room to experiment. That was part of the fun of primary education. I think my main interest in primary education was that it was so fundamental in the learning process. It was a place where a child should feel happy, comfortable and successful. If that was neglected, then it was a situation that continued on, the child could become resentful. That type of failure was a serious handicap for him later on in the learning process. So, if I can recapitulate, I think my interest in primary education and elementary education was that it was the beginning; therefore, very important and very strategic for the child, as well as for the parents for whom it was their first experience with a child in a school environment. The parents needed to be supportive of the child and feel that a school was doing it's best to meet the needs of all its children. Q: You had said something about the children taking an act in their own educational process, and their own pursuit of education. was your role then with the children was a fairly informal, friendly one where you stood back? A: Yes, pretty much so. There needs to be some self direction, but there also must and can be a place where the child can participate. If its something he is investigating, like the history of his school house, for instance, or the history of the area, he could talk to his parents about their interests or he could interview, depending on his age level, old settlers in the area and find a lot of interesting stories that they could tell. He could then learn to repeat them to other children or write them out or use them as a process in which he was creating something no one else was doing. There were not particular guidelines with which he had to contend. He or she was free to do what ever felt good. Naturally their investigation of that and of their little science projects depended entirely upon their own ability to be ingenious and think of questions and seek answers. I well remember that as a teacher and as a teaching principal, we had a great deal of fun in our mathematics classes. We had contests with each other. By manipulation of the times tables and speed tests on them, we keep records of how they improved. The improvement was the amazing thing. If a slower child was making a good improvement it was as much satisfaction as the improvement of the brighter one who naturally learned much easier and who's home environment might have been considerably different and better for him. I think that pretty well answers your question. I believe in allowing for experimentation, ingenuity and the fun of being complemented for the work that's well done, and much of it was well done. The teacher could then learn a great deal about the background of the child and his family life and that's very helpful too. Q: You have said a lot about the children you ran into or your relationship with them, what about the teachers, the faculty? A: When I started in the teaching field, it was very difficult to find enough qualified teachers. It was not too long after World War II and society's emphasis was on war and preparation for war so that there were not too many graduates. Many who had graduated went into war efforts or were into active participation in the war, so it was very difficult to maintain the quality of the teaching staff you would have liked to have. Often times you would create a learning situation with seminars and the bringing in of county wide conferences with people who were specialists in teaching certain subjects. At that particular time, the emphasis on science took a great leap forward. Russia had launched its first Sputnik which startled the American public because the Russians were way ahead of us in science, so we began to stress that in our curriculum. We looked for teachers that came out of civilian life with certain backgrounds and certain personalities. We tried to help them become good teachers. Often times you had to hire and then release people who were just not teacher material. For their sake and for the sake of the children, you were able to remove them by recommendation to the school board which is much more difficult now. It had some drawbacks, too. If a principal was prejudice for some personal reason against the teacher, he could often manufacture enough material to have the teacher released. That was a bad beginning in my program and something that has been remedied. Teachers now have many more rights. They have the right to be heard and have a legal responsibility that is written into teacher contracts now. By the same token, it's assumed that they are much better prepared. They come out of teacher training programs and from school programs that have higher requirements. We can be much more selective, of course, when you have a large number of applicants for jobs. When, how much and how soon that will change no one knows. It depends the maturity of populations, rates of birth and so forth. Q: You had to personally dismiss a teacher or several teachers? A: Yes, over a long period of time there were teachers that I dismissed. It was of course my own judgement and I felt that of necessity it had to be very objective. It was not always a pleasant task but for the sake of a good school system and for the sake of the children, it had to be done. It's unfortunate that it has to be done but you cannot always screen out the qualities of a teacher even in a teacher training program. Somebody has to do it and it was important to have it done. There are lots of ways of measuring whether or not a teacher is doing a satisfactory job, particularly when you are in a school system that isn't too large. For instance, a teacher will have a youngster one year, a student of average intelligence and if the student is poorly prepared to go into the next level or the next grade, or by comparing the progress of that particular group of children from this particular teaching program and if it is below what should be the average, it becomes pretty evident that there is a problem. You also learn to use the comments of parents and other teachers. Sometimes other teachers become disgusted with the inability of a teacher to adequately prepare a child at the lower level. When that happens, a teacher has the additional job of going back and repeating something that the child should have learned in a previous grade. So it is justifiable to dismiss poorly qualified teachers, but it also has to be done democratically. You can't allow subjective processes to enter your thinking or recommendations you might make to the board for the dismissal of a teacher. It is not always possible, but so far as possible, it should be based on facts that are verifiable. There again, some teachers are able to convince parents that they are doing a magnificent job because the child is happy and is given good grades and that pleases everyone. But it is an injustice to the child if he or she is not made aware that they are not keeping up to standards if they are capable of it. Those are elements that were part of my experience. Q: Did a lot of this happen because of the war, the unavailability of teachers. A: Well, first of all, not many men could go into teaching because they were in military service. Other men who were teachers were in the National Guard so they, naturally, were called and others, out of patriotic duty, enlisted. So there was quite a vacancy. Some other teachers were much higher paid by industry at the time so they felt that to be the better way. Also, at that time, unmarried teachers were considered more valuable. Some school districts would not even hire a married teacher. That is no longer true. It would be impossible to run our school systems now without married teachers. Now, an unmarried teacher becomes a pretty likeable asset to a community, particularly to the men there. It's a pretty good chance not only to make a pretty good career but to find an adequate mate. I'm not sure if society has changed much in that respect or not. Q: Aside from that, do you think that teachers often choose the profession because they like working with kids, a lot. Above and beyond that is it a profession where somebody would have enough other benefits that they would want to stay with it? A: It now has much better benefits, better security and a better retirement program, but it was always considered a socially acceptable job. Teachers were always well thought of. Coming into the community they had a ready entree and were sought out as members of the community for their advise. They were asked to participation on committees and in church programs. Many of them fell into that role very nicely. other intangible benefits, as in nursing, were that you were able to find a job wherever you were locating and if you liked to travel, there was a good chance of being able to travel through many places in the world as an exchange teacher. That appeals to a lot of people. Also, if you were a good teacher, your job was never really threatened in any sense, particularly now, as I mentioned, that you have many legal safeguards. If you do a fairly respectable job it is almost impossible for you not to be rehired. Sometimes that is quite a disadvantage to a school system who had marginal teachers. They can't do much with them. They can't be put in less desirable jobs or retired if they are older but still teaching on their loyalty, so to speak. I have known teachers who have never changed their teaching program in the twenty years that they have been there. It is unthinkable, but they use the same methods they used, the same assignments. It seems unbelievable, but its a very flexible occupation in which you can cover up many things you don't do well by just laziness in many respects or disinterest or a major interest in some other aspect of life. Q: Do you think as a whole the educational system is remaining stagnant or is it taking some positive directions? A: I think its taking very positive directions. I think we are learning much more about childhood development. And secondly: the environment is changing so strenuously with the advent of more mothers and women teaching. There isn't the same relationship to children. They are not always coming home to find mother, nor a mother's time to devote to the interest of the children. Certainly, society is demanding and hoping that the schools can take up more of the slack in childhood education, more than the home is able to give them. So, there are and have been many, many good studies. There have been many good experiments adopted and pursued by many of the teacher training programs. While some of them have contributed little to the knowledge and ability of a person to teach, there have also been some very good programs that an aggressive, intelligent teacher can profit by considerably in translating that into their teaching methods. I've been very encouraged with the things that have been proposed and the helps that teachers have, particularly with the advent of the computer and the computer age and the games that are involved that are educa